Differences in Religiosity and Spirituality as a Result of Generation, Gender and Education

By Mark Green, Esther S. Chavez, Meghan Carmody-Bubb and Phyllis Duncan.

Published by The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society

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In this study 626 participants completed two religious/spiritual instruments: the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale and the Religious Orientation Scale. There were 402 female and 224 male participants. Three hundred sixty-six participants were members of Generation Y, 138 Generation X and 122 were Baby Boomers. There were participants who held a high school course, 93 an Associate’s, 128 a Bachelor’s degree, and 88 held a graduate degree.

The results of a 3-Way Multiple Analysis of Variance, and additional post-hoc analyses found that members of Generation Y reported significantly fewer daily spiritual experiences than participants who were members of Generation X and Baby Boomers. Generation Y also scored higher on Extrinsic Religiosity and lower on Intrinsic Religiosity than members of Generation X and Baby Boomers.
Participants who held educational credentials beyond the Bachelor’s degree reported higher levels of Intrinsic Religiosity than those with a high school degree.

Significant interaction effects were found for the interactions of gender and generation, gender and education, and generation and education.

Keywords: Religiosity, Spirituality, Generation, Gender, Education

The International Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Society, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp.47-63. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 919.299KB).

Dr. Mark Green

Professor, Department of Leadership Studies, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX, USA

Dr. Mark Green is a Professor of Leadership Studies at Our Lady of the Lake University. He holds a PhD in Educational Administration, an MBA, an MS in Information Systems, an M.Ed., and an MA in Theology. He teaches leadership in his university’s doctoral program in Leadership Studies, and has chaired over 40 doctoral dissertations in the field of leadership. Prior to his career in academe, he served as a military officer with assignments at the Pentagon and the Army Medical Department Center.

Dr. Esther S. Chavez

Professor, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX, USA

Dr. Esther Chavez is the Chair of the Department of Leadership Studies at Our Lady of the Lake University. She holds a PhD in leadership studies from Our Lady of the Lake University, an MBA from Our Lady of the Lake University and a bachelor’s degree in marketing from Texas A&M University. She has presented a variety of papers about leadership at international conferences. Prior to becoming a professor, she was an executive with Citibank North America.

Dr. Meghan Carmody-Bubb

Assistant Professor, Department of Leadership Studies, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX, USA

Dr. Meghan Carmody-Bubb holds a PhD in experimental psychology. She is a former Naval officer who is currently an Assistant Professor of Leadership Studies at Our Lady of the Lake University.

Dr. Phyllis Duncan

Professor, Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, TX, USA

Phyllis A. Duncan, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the School of Business and Leadership at Our Lady of the Lake University where she teaches and is coordinator of the Leadership Studies Doctoral Program. She has held leadership positions in businesses including CEO, COO, and Senior Vice President. Phyllis holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from University of the Ozarks, a Master of Business Administration degree from University of Arkansas, a Master of Science in Industrial Engineering from Southwest University, and a Doctorate of Philosophy from University of the Incarnate Word.