Although Rome was covered with marble temples by the end of the first century CE, temples were used for a range of activities beyond religious practice and cult, such as meetings of the Senate, for example. At home, however, the private household gods, the Lares and Penates, were paramount; they were included at every meal and revered at the beginning and end of each day. Under the emperor Augustus private cult became codified unofficially at state level as the emperor served as the Father of the Nation and Head of State. Moreover, after Augustus only the emperor and members of his family were allowed to lead armies, conduct sacrifices on behalf of the state and to hold a Triumph. The names ‘Caesar’ and ‘Augustus’ were titles and became part of the royal hierarchy of western Europe. Finally, slightly modified forms of Roman cult practices constituted the service in both the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches.
|Keywords:||Roman Religion, Lares and Penates, Caesar, Augustus, Roman Catholic, Anglican|
Senior Lecturer, Classics , School of Art History, Classics and Religious Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand